Urban mobility is a constant challenge that requires a lot of planning and attention. The city’s population grew at an accelerated rate, with an estimated increase of 2.5 billion people by 2050 according to United Nation’s data in 2014. According to the report, about 66% of the world's population will live in cities until 2050 compared to current 54%.
Rapid urbanization and the constant movement from rural areas to the cities have caused a swelling of urban space. To combat increase of the population, it is necessary an efficient and quality public transport system, as an alternative to cars. In Brazil alone, passenger cars account for 38% of CO2 emissions according to the Brazilian Department of Environment.
Cars are very convenient but an inefficient mode of transportation. In Salvador, for example, according to data from the Bahia Infrastructure Secretariat study, in 2013, seven out of ten cars circulate with only one occupant, overloading an existing road infrastructure. The Brazilian average are 1.5 person / car, as explained by Mobilize.
In Europe, according to the European Development Agency (EEA), UK, rate of 1.58 person / car, Germany 1.42 and the Netherlands 1.38.
In order to respond to the inefficiency of passenger vehicles it is necessary the public transportation system. Public transportation can be explained as an accessible system for the population, and may or may not require taxes, be local or regional and have a specific schedule. There are famous examples like the train, subway, ferry, bus and trains.
There are several benefits associated with the adoption of public transport by the population. There are improvements in indicators of deaths in transit, air pollution and health. In the US, only 1% of transit accidents are related to public transportation, while 75% are directly linked to passenger cars according to US Department of Transportation data. The stimulus to public transport has so much power to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases that the German Government are studying make it free for the population.
Studies have shown that if there is sufficient investment in the public transportation system to the North American cities, the benefits related to helath costs per person would be $ 355 per year, while the benefits associated with an integrated public system with cycles and routes would be $ 541, as indicated by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
In this way, it is easy to see several advantages related to the investment in public transportation by the governing power. It is now up to decision-makers to invest more resources and time in improving existing systems and creating new systems.